저작권자 © Korea IT Times 무단전재 및 재배포 금지
Clusters key to raising national competitiveness to global level Many nations are nowadays focusing their efforts on boosting competitiveness through the nurturing of clusters, recognizing that clusters are key to national competitiveness. Overseas clusters can be sub-divided into the R&D-oriented model (Japan, San Diego in the United States), the productioncentered model (Sweden, Taiwan), and the combination model merging R&D and production (Silicon Valley and Zhongguancun Science Park, China).
First off the mark, Silicon Valley, was one of the combination models integrating R&D and production, and it has been spearheading the Valley's IT boom with the harmonization of research ability such as venture spirit and Stanford University. As a result, there are now 9,000 corporations as well as 20 percent of the 100 leading global companies headquarters located in Silicon Valley.
Professor William F. Miller, of California's Stanford University summarizes 12 features of an advanced high-tech entrepreneurial habitat incorporated in Silicon Valley as follows: Knowledge intensity; universities and research institutes that interact with industry; favorable government policies; results-oriented meritocracy; flexible and mobile workforce; climate that rewards risk-taking and tolerates failure; knowledgeable venture capital; open business environment; collaboration among business, government, and non-profit local networks; specialized business service infrastructure providing lawyers, accountants, etc.; high quality of life; and global linkages.
In Zhongguancun Science Park as well, China's high-tech park in Beijing, which concentrated its capacity on new industries such as IT and BT etc., 8,200 innovative companies are operating their business with a view to catching up with Silicon Valley within 15 years on the basis of educational, industrial and governmental interaction.
Dr. Xia Yingqu, deputy director, administrative committee of Zhongguancun Science Park, explains: 'To meet the challenges emerging from the rapid social development and to vigorously boost the progress of Zhongguancun Science Park, Beijing municipal government drafted and promulgated the regulation of Zhongguancun Science Park in 2000, thus cultivating a favorable environment for the healthy growth of the market economy, legal system and internationalization.'
Also, B.V. Naidu, Director, Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), speaking at an international symposium held on July 29 in Daedeok on the occasion of the launch of the Daedeok R&D special zone, said that India is equipping itself with world-class infrastructure to induce investment. India is offering various attractive incentives in its Software Technology Parks (STPs), Electronics Hardware Technology Parks (EHTPs), Export-oriented Units (E0Us), and now Special Economic Zones (SEZs). Some of the key features of India's clusters include deregulated procedures and controls, the single window concept, permitting 100 percent foreign equity, full repatriation of profits, and 100 percent income tax holidays till 2009.
'STPI can leverage its experience to create similar success stories through exploring opportunities for mutual cooperation, keeping in view the strengths and opportunities of this nation', he added. Common elements of these successful overseas clusters are that science technology, industry nurturing and local development are being combined organically to acquire core capacity through educational-industrial & governmental joint participation.
In addition, these clusters have facilitated mutual interaction between technology developers and users and activated new technology incubation with the construction of a venture support system.
In the case of the Daedeok R&D Valley, networks of educational-industrial connections, a core success element of an innovation cluster, are appearing to be most fragile. With this in mind, the Daedeok Valley innovation cluster is being promoted to nurture R&D as a success model by actively encouraging innovation cluster formation based on Daejeon's four competitive strategic industries and four new growth industries.
This Daedeok Valley innovation cluster is designed to substantially boost local development to the global level by accelerating technology innovation and reinforcing the cluster's competitiveness, while at the same time entering into strategic cooperation with the world's advanced clusters. Likewise, the Daedeok R&D special zone is also faced with a number of tasks needed to commercialize research performance, forge a venture ecosystem of global standard and construct global networks as well as habitats.
Through executing such tasks successfully, the Daedeok R&D special zone has set itself a goal of becoming a globallycompetitive, super first-rate innovation cluster within 10 years. Backed by cutting-edge technology, venture finance, omnidirectional marketing, incubation of R&D talent, special manpower and management capacity, Daedeok Valley aims to lure by 2015 as many as 3,000 companies, 20 foreign research institutions, and 20 NASDAQ-listed companies. Moreover, within the next 10 years, Daedeok Valley is aiming at accomplishing 16,000 overseas patent registrations, 500 billion won in technology fee income, and 30 trillion won in turnover.