The twelfth article of the concrete methodology for building social capital
As above-mentioned, the emergence is central to the concepts of integrative levels and of complex systems, which is based on the insight that complicated feedback systems have surprising properties. The emergent properties of a market (prices, division of labor, growth, energy, and creativity etc.) are the outgrowths of the diverse and disparate goals of the individuals in a catallaxy, which is the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions.
And then, How can something as complex and highly structured as the catallaxy be created and work in a self-organized and bottom-up way Why does there appear to be a correlation between the complexity of a catallaxy and its wealth Why has the growth in wealth and complexity been sudden and explosive rather than smooth And, why has the complexity and diversity of the catallaxy grown over time
Diversity is defined as real or perceived differences among people in race, ethnicity, sex, age, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, religion, work and family status, weight and appearance, and other identity-based attributes that affect their interactions and relationships. The definition of diversity includes the terms real and perceived to acknowledge the social constructions of many areas of differences that are based on power or dominance relations between groups, particularly “identity groups,” which are the collectivities people use to categorize themselves and others. Identity groups are often readily apparent to others, strong sources of personal meaning, and related to historical disparities among groups in treatment, opportunities, and outcomes. Race, ethnicity, sex, age, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, religion, work and family status, and weight and appearance are important differentiating factors in a society. Depending on national context, culture, political and socioeconomic structures, and history, different factors of “diversity” will be of most importance in the interactions and relationships among people. People’s group memberships affect their outcomes, opportunities, and experiences in society and in organizations.
Groups composed of people from different backgrounds bring with them differences that result in greater creativity and problem-solving ability. These abilities stem from the different life experiences, language abilities, and education that groups composed of diverse members have. Empirical research also supports the idea that diversity positively affects group performance, creativity, and innovation.
Groups composed of diverse members produced higher-quality ideas than groups composed of homogenous members. As global competition increases, the ability to generate superior ideas is vital to success. As an example, two people with diverse backgrounds would choose to test different potential product improvements differently, increasing the probability of finding a useful innovation.
In an increasingly global and diverse environment, where cooperation is important to business success and where teamwork is vital, organizational diversity will therefore be an asset. Interaction effects with organizational strategy. In other words, groups composed of members from collectivist backgrounds instead of individualist backgrounds display more cooperative behavior on group tasks.
In addition to the organizational benefits of diversity, individuals whose groups were diverse and who interacted with each other in meaningful ways and learned from each other were more likely to see diversity as not necessarily divisive, to see commonality in values, and to be able to take the perspective of others.
It is important to consider some of the negative outcomes that may arise from increased diversity. Some of these negative consequences can include dysfunctional communication processes between different group members, discrimination, harassment, and perceptions that nontraditional workers are unqualified, and lowered attachment, commitment, and satisfaction, although increased diversity was associated with negative outcomes initially, this lessened over time.
Diversity to individuals and organizations has been criticized for focusing solely on the “business case” reasons for pursuing diversity; these criticisms are often legitimate. But moral and social reasons can and should work in concert with business reasons for supporting diversity through pursuit of equality and inclusion. For example, the inequality and poverty often experienced by minorities and women due to discrimination and exclusion from work in formal organizations are moral and social issues. Reduction of inequality, poverty, and discrimination can benefit society and future populations as well as organizations.
How can diversity influence organizational and individual effectiveness
The diversity climate of an organization (including individual-, group/intergroup factors, and organizational-level factors) affects individual outcomes (affective, achievement, applicant, and customer), which then influence organizational effectiveness.
Reasons for valuing diversity may be emphasized: cost, resource acquisition, marketing, creativity, problem solving, organizational and individual flexibility, and so on, which are inspired to pursue diversity; perhaps for competitive advantage, but more important, as a moral imperative. When everyone, regardless of race, sex, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, physical and mental ability, family status, or other non-job-related attributes, has opportunities to work in a variety of jobs, to obtain promotions and advancement at work, to shop without being followed and drive without being profiled, and to obtain education, housing, loans, service in restaurants, and other normal privileges, individuals, organizations, and societies will be more able to contribute to the well-being of us all in the world in which we live.